PHP инклюдинг в продуктах CodeGrrl

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PHP: Почему >

Пытаюсь отдебагить (как это правильно назвать?) довольно странную ситуацию:

В файле header.php у меня есть строчка
Comment::theUnrepliedCommentsQuantity($userId);
Которая выдает ошибку
Fatal error: Uncaught Error: Class ‘Comment’ not found

При том что namespace задан в файле который подключен перед этим через include
use j4s\Comment;

При этом, если я use прописываю в том-же файле из которого вызывается класс, то все срабатывает корректно, если я такую-же запись переношу в конец файла подключенного выше include’ом то выдает ошибку.

Инструмент pix2code генерирует код пользовательского интерфейса на основе изображений

На GitHub появился инструмент pix2code, который автоматически преобразовывает дизайнерские макеты графических пользовательских интерфейсов (GUI) в готовый код, проще говоря — создает на основе изображения небольшую программу.

Разработчики из копенгагенской компании UIzard Technologies, придумавшие pix2code, ставят своей целью помочь ускорить процесс создания IT-проектов и упростить переход от идеи к реализации.

Демонстрация инструмента

Как работает pix2code?

Для преобразования изображений в программный код используются техники глубинного машинного обучения. Модель способна генерировать код на основе одного входного изображения с точностью более 77% и ориентирована на три платформы — iOS, Android и веб. На ускорителе Nvidia Tesla K80 оптимизация 109 × 10 6 параметров для одного набора данных (для одной платформы) занимает чуть меньше 5 часов.

Авторы сообщают, что наборы данных для тренировки и исходный код будут выложены в открытый доступ примерно в сентябре этого года.

Можно будет использовать его в своих проектах?

Нет, конкретно pix2code создан и будет существовать в качестве эксперимента и обучающей базы. Но ребята в UIzard Technologies советуют следить за их новостями — они готовятся выпускать на рынок похожий продукт.

Более подробную информацию можно получить на странице проекта и в репозитории на GitHub, а прочитать технический обзор — в посвященной инструменту исследовательской работе.

Including a whole directory in PHP or Wildcard for use in PHP Include?

I have a command interpreter in php. It lives inside the commands directory and needs access to every command in the command file. Currently I call require once on each command.

Is there someway to include all of these commands with a single require_once? I have a similar problem many other places in my code (with factories, builders, other interpreters). There is nothing but commands in this directory and the interpreter needs every other file in the directory. Is there a wildcard that can be used in require? Such as:

Is there any other way around this that doesn’t involve twenty lines of include at the top of the file?

5 Answers 5

Why do you want to do that? Isn’t it a better solution to only include the library when needing it to increase speed and reduce footprint?

Advanced Usage

Table of contents

Specifying Valid File Extensions

By default, PHP_CodeSniffer will check any file it finds with a .inc , .php , .js or .css extension, although not all standards will actually check all these file types. Sometimes, this means that PHP_CodeSniffer is not checking enough of your files. Sometimes, the opposite is true. PHP_CodeSniffer allows you to specify a list of valid file extensions using the —extensions command line argument. Extensions are separated by commas.

To only check .php files:

To check .php, .inc and .lib files:

Ignoring Files and Folders

Sometimes you want PHP_CodeSniffer to run over a very large number of files, but you want some files and folders to be skipped. The —ignore command line argument can be used to tell PHP_CodeSniffer to skip files and folders that match one or more patterns.

In the following example, PHP_CodeSniffer will skip all files inside the package’s tests and data directories. This is useful if you are checking a PEAR package but don’t want your test or data files to conform to your coding standard.

The ignore patterns are treated as regular expressions. If you do specify a regular expression, be aware that * is converted to .* for the convenience in simple patterns, like those used in the example above. So use * anywhere you would normally use .* . Also ensure you escape any . characters that you want treated as a literal dot, such as when checking file extensions. So if you are checking for .inc in your ignore pattern, use \.inc instead.

You can also tell PHP_CodeSniffer to ignore a file using a special comment inserted at the top of the file. This will stop the file being checked even if it does not match the ignore pattern.

Note: Before PHP_CodeSniffer version 3.2.0, use // @codingStandardsIgnoreFile instead of // phpcs:ignoreFile . The @codingStandards syntax is deprecated and will be removed in PHP_CodeSniffer version 4.0.

Note: The phpcs:ignoreFile comment syntax does not allow for a specific set of sniffs to be ignored for a file. Use the phpcs:disable comment syntax if you want to disable a specific set of sniffs for the entire file.

If required, you can add a note explaining why the file is being ignored by using the — separator.

Note: The comment syntax note feature is only available from PHP_CodeSniffer version 3.2.0 onwards.

Ignoring Parts of a File

Some parts of your code may be unable to conform to your coding standard. For example, you might have to break your standard to integrate with an external library or web service. To stop PHP_CodeSniffer generating errors for this code, you can wrap it in special comments. PHP_CodeSniffer will then hide all errors and warnings that are generated for these lines of code.

Note: Before PHP_CodeSniffer version 3.2.0, use // @codingStandardsIgnoreStart instead of // phpcs:disable , and use // @codingStandardsIgnoreEnd instead of // phpcs:enable . The @codingStandards syntax is deprecated and will be removed in PHP_CodeSniffer version 4.0.

If you don’t want to disable all coding standard errors, you can selectively disable and re-enable specific error message codes, sniffs, categories of sniffs, or entire coding standards. The following example disables the specific Generic.Commenting.Todo.Found message and then re-enables all checks at the end.

You can disable multiple error message codes, sniff, categories, or standards by using a comma separated list. You can also selectively re-enable just the ones you want. The following example disables the entire PEAR coding standard, and all the Squiz array sniffs, before selectively re-enabling a specific sniff. It then re-enables all checking rules at the end.

Note: All phpcs:disable and phpcs:enable comments only apply to the file they are contained within. After the file has finished processing all sniffs are re-enabled for future files.

Note: Selective disabling and re-enabling of codes/sniffs/categories/standards is only available from PHP_CodeSniffer version 3.2.0 onwards.

You can also ignore a single line using the phpcs:ignore comment. This comment will ignore the line that the comment is on, and the following line. It is typically used like this:

Note: Before PHP_CodeSniffer version 3.2.0, use // @codingStandardsIgnoreLine instead of // phpcs:ignore . The @codingStandards syntax is deprecated and will be removed in PHP_CodeSniffer version 4.0.

Again, you can selectively ignore one or more specific error message codes, sniffs, categories of sniffs, or entire standards.

Note: Selective ignoring of codes/sniffs/categories/standards is only available from PHP_CodeSniffer version 3.2.0 onwards.

If required, you can add a note explaining why sniffs are being disable and re-enabled by using the — separator.

Note: The comment syntax note feature is only available from PHP_CodeSniffer version 3.2.0 onwards.

Limiting Results to Specific Sniffs

By default, PHP_CodeSniffer will check your code using all sniffs in the specified standard. Sometimes you may want to find all occurrences of a single error to eliminate it more quickly, or to exclude sniffs to see if they are causing conflicts in your standard. PHP_CodeSniffer allows you to specify a list of sniffs to limit results to using the —sniffs command line argument, or a list of sniffs to exclude using the —exclude command line argument. Sniff codes are separated by commas.

Note: All sniffs specified on the command line must be used in the coding standard you are using to check your files.

The following example will only run two sniffs over the code instead of all sniffs in the PEAR standard:

The following example will run all sniffs in the PEAR standard except for the two specified:

Note: If you use both the —sniffs and —exclude command line arguments together, the —exclude list will be ignored.

Filtering Errors and Warnings Based on Severity

By default, PHP_CodeSniffer assigns a severity of 5 to all errors and warnings. Standards may change the severity of some messages so they are hidden by default or even so that they are raised to indicate greater importance. PHP_CodeSniffer allows you to decide what the minimum severity level must be to show a message in its report using the —severity command line argument.

To hide errors and warnings with a severity less than 3:

You can specify different values for errors and warnings using the —error-severity and —warning-severity command line arguments.

To show all errors, but only warnings with a severity of 8 or more:

Setting the severity of warnings to 0 is the same as using the -n command line argument. If you set the severity of errors to 0 PHP_CodeSniffer will not show any errors, which may be useful if you just want to show warnings.

This feature is particularly useful during manual code reviews. During normal development, or an automated build, you may want to only check code formatting issues. But while during a code review, you may wish to show less severe errors and warnings that may need manual peer review.

Replacing Tabs with Spaces

Most of the sniffs written for PHP_CodeSniffer do not support the usage of tabs for indentation and alignment. You can write your own sniffs that check for tabs instead of spaces, but you can also get PHP_CodeSniffer to convert your tabs into spaces before a file is checked. This allows you to use the existing space-based sniffs on your tab-based files.

In the following example, PHP_CodeSniffer will replace all tabs in the files being checked with between 1 and 4 spaces, depending on the column the tab indents to.

Note: The included sniff that enforces space indentation will still generate errors even if you have replaced tabs with spaces using the —tab-width setting. This sniff looks at the unmodified version of the code to check line indentation and so must be disabled in a custom ruleset.xml file if you want to use tab indentation.

Specifying an Encoding

By default, PHP_CodeSniffer will treat all source files as if they use UTF-8 encoding. If you need your source files to be processed using a specific encoding, you can specify the encoding using the —encoding command line argument.

Using a Bootstrap File

PHP_CodeSniffer can optionally include one or more custom bootstrap files before beginning the run. Bootstrap files are included after command line arguments and rulesets have been parsed, and right before files begin to process. These custom files may be used to perform such taks as manipulating the internal settings of PHP_CodeSniffer that are not exposed through command line arguments. Multiple bootstrap files are seperated by commas.

Using a Default Configuration File

If you run PHP_CodeSniffer without specifying a coding standard, PHP_CodeSniffer will look in the current directory, and all parent directories, for a file called either .phpcs.xml , phpcs.xml , .phpcs.xml.dist , or phpcs.xml.dist . If found, configuration information will be read from this file, including the files to check, the coding standard to use, and any command line arguments to apply.

Note: If multiple default configuration files are found, PHP_CodeSniffer will select one using the following order: .phpcs.xml , phpcs.xml , .phpcs.xml.dist , phpcs.xml.dist

The phpcs.xml file has exactly the same format as a normal ruleset.xml file, so all the same options are available in it. The phpcs.xml file essentially acts as a default coding standard and configuration file for a code base, and is typically used to allow the phpcs command to be run on a repository without specifying any arguments.

An example phpcs.xml file can be found in the PHP_CodeSniffer repository: phpcs.xml.dist

Specifying php.ini Settings

PHP_CodeSniffer allows you to set temporary php.ini settings during a run using the -d command line argument. The name of the php.ini setting must be specified on the command line, but the value is optional. If no value is set, the php.ini setting will be given a value of TRUE.

You can also specific multiple values:

Setting Configuration Options

PHP_CodeSniffer has some configuration options that can be set. Individual coding standards may also require configuration options to be set before functionality can be used. View a full list of configuration options.

To set a configuration option, use the —config-set command line argument.

Configuration options are written to a global configuration file. If you want to set them for a single run only, use the —runtime-set command line argument.

Note: Not all configuration options can be set using the —runtime-set command line argument. Configuration options that provide defaults for command line arguments, such as the default standard or report type, can not be used with —runtime-set . To set these values for a single run only, use the dedicated CLI arguments that PHP_CodeSniffer provides. The Configuration Options list provides an alternative CLI argument for each configuration option not supported by —runtime-set .

Deleting Configuration Options

PHP_CodeSniffer allows you to delete any configuration option, reverting it to its default value. View a full list of configuration options.

To delete a configuration option, use the —config-delete command line argument.

Viewing Configuration Options

To view the currently set configuration options, use the —config-show command line argument.

Printing Verbose Tokeniser Output

This feature is provided for debugging purposes only. Using this feature will dramatically increase screen output and script running time.

PHP_CodeSniffer contains multiple verbosity levels. Level 2 (indicated by the command line argument -vv ) will print all verbosity information for level 1 (file specific token and line counts with running times) as well as verbose tokeniser output.

The output of the PHP_CodeSniffer tokeniser shows the step-by-step creation of the scope map and the level map.

The scope map is best explained with an example. For the following file:

The scope map output is:

The scope map output above shows the following pieces of information about the file:

  • A scope token if was found at token 1 (note that token 0 is the open PHP tag).
  • The opener for the if statement, the open curly brace, was found at token 7.
  • The closer for the if statement, the close curly brace, was found at token 15.
  • Tokens 8 — 15 are all included in the scope set by the scope opener at token 7, the open curly brace. This indicates that these tokens are all within the if statement.
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The scope map output is most useful when debugging PHP_CodeSniffer’s scope map, which is critically important to the successful checking of a file, but is also useful for checking the type of a particular token. For example, if you are unsure of the token type for an opening curly brace, the scope map output shows you that the type is T_OPEN_CURLY_BRACKET and not, for example, T_OPEN_CURLY_BRACE.

The level map is best explained with an example. For the following file:

The level map output is:

The level map output above shows the following pieces of information about the file:

  • A scope opener, an open curly brace, was found at token 7 and opened the scope for an if statement, defined at token 1.
  • Tokens 8 — 15 are all included in the scope set by the scope opener at token 7, the open curly brace. All these tokens are at level 1, indicating that they are enclosed in 1 scope condition, and all these tokens are enclosed in a single condition; an if statement.

The level map is most commonly used to determine indentation rules (e.g., a token 4 levels deep requires 16 spaces of indentation) or to determine if a particular token is within a particular scope (e.g., a function keyword is within a class scope, making it a method).

Printing Verbose Token Processing Output

This feature is provided for debugging purposes only. Using this feature will dramatically increase screen output and script running time.

PHP_CodeSniffer contains multiple verbosity levels. Level 3 (indicated by the command line argument -vvv ) will print all verbosity information for level 1 (file specific token and line counts with running times), level 2 (tokeniser output) as well as token processing output with sniff running times.

The token processing output is best explained with an example. For the following file:

The token processing output is:

Every token processed is shown, along with its ID, type and contents. For each token, all sniffs that were executed on the token are displayed, along with the running time.

For example, the output above shows us that token 1, an if keyword, had 5 sniffs executed on it; the ControlSignature sniff, the MultiLineCondition sniff, the ScopeClosingBrace sniff, the ScopeIndent sniff and the InlineControlStructure sniff. Each was executed fairly quickly, but the slowest was the ControlSignature sniff, taking 0.0001 seconds to process that token.

The other interesting piece of information we get from the output above is that some tokens didn’t have any sniffs executed on them. This is normal behaviour for PHP_CodeSniffer as most sniffs listen for specific or rarely used tokens and then execute on it and a number of tokens following it.

For example, the ScopeIndentSniff executes on the if statement’s token only, but actually checks the indentation of every line within the if statement. The sniff uses the scope map to find all tokens within the if statement.

If a coding standard or configuration file includes settings to print progress or verbose output while running PHP_CodeSniffer, it can make it difficult to use the standard with automated checking tools and build scripts as these typically only expect an error report. If you have this problem, or just want less output, you can quieten the output of PHP_CodeSniffer by using the -q command line argument. When using this quiet mode, PHP_CodeSniffer will only print report output, and only if errors or warnings are found. No progress or verbose output will be printed.

Генерация QR-кодов в PHP

Дата публикации: 2012-11-20

От автора: широко применяемые в различных современных приложениях QR-коды можно видеть на банках кока-колы, визитных карточках, в суши-барах и музеях. В данном уроке, мы рассмотрим генерацию QR кода средствами PHP. QR-код – это двумерный штрих-код, изобретенный в Японии. Он запатентован, но создатели, корпорация Denso Wave, решили его не использовать и оставили стандарт открытым для всех. С тех пор код стал гораздо популярнее из-за способности включать в единственное изображение множество данных и распространения смартфонов со сканирующими приложениями.

В этой статье я покажу вам, как QR-коды с легкостью генерируются в PHP-приложении и поделюсь идеями того, где и как их применять, как сгенерировать qr код. Для генерации QR-кодов мы используем PHP QR Code – библиотеку, написанную в PHP для генерирования QR-кодов, которой для создания изображений не требуется ничего, помимо стандартного графического расширения GD2.

Генерируем первый QR-код

Начните с закачки последней библиотеки PHP QR Code с GitHub. Полагаю, что вам это удалось, и вы сможете пройти в среде разработки на http://localhost/phpqrcode и обнаружите, что демо-версия работает. Можете вставить любой понравившийся вам текст в поле данных, чтобы конвертировать его в изображение QR-кода, как показано внизу на скриншоте. Если возникли какие-либо проблемы, убедитесь, что у вас установлен PHP с расширением GD2, при необходимости дважды проверив это на странице информации PHP.

Создайте новый скрипт PHP со следующим кодом:

Как создать сайт самому?

Какие технологии и знания необходимы сегодня, чтобы создавать сайты самостоятельно? Узнайте на интенсиве!

Видите, как просто? С помощью двух строк, вы освоили генерацию QR-кода для своих веб-приложений на PHP. Возможности бесконечны! Но погодите, это явно не все. У библиотеки имеется множество достойных рассмотрения свойств.

Свойства библиотеки PHP QR Code

Для полного представления попробуйте этот код:

Первый параметр определяет текст или данные, которые будут закодированы в изображении, и передается как обычная строка. Второй параметр – это название выходного файла к сгенерированному PNG-изображению. Значение по умолчанию – булево false, в этом случае изображение сбрасывается в браузер.

Третий параметр – уровень коррекции ошибок для сгенерированного штрих-кода, переданного как строка из единственной буквы. Она устанавливает, сколько кодовых слов данных (8 бит на одно кодовое слово) можно сохранить для искаженного или поврежденного изображения QR-кода с помощью алгоритма коррекции ошибок Рида-Соломона (Reed-Solomon error correction algorithm). Чем выше уровень коррекции, тем меньше может быть информационная емкость штрих-кода для данного измерения. Ниже приведена таблица, отражающая уровни с процентным соотношением их восстановления и константами строк, применяемыми при вызове QRcode::png(). (Я взял таблицу из статьи Wikipedia об QR-кодах, а сигнатуру метода – из библиотеки PHP QR Code.)

Четвертый параметр определяет размер каждого квадрата штрих-кода в пикселях. Каждый квадрат кода (также называемый “пикселями” или “модулями”) – 4×4px. Пятый параметр определяет предел белого поля вокруг штрих-кода в квадратах кода (например, поле в 16px с каждой стороны для квадрата кода размером 4×4px).

Библиотека поддерживает экспорт изображений PNG, SVG и EPS, и можно генерировать QR-коды в любом из этих форматов, просто меняя название метода с png() на svg() или eps() и применяя правильное расширение файлового имени сгенерированного изображения.

Также можно менять цвет фона и изображения переднего плана, передавая их как дополнительные параметры:

PHP OOP CRUD Tutorial – Step By Step Gu >

Previously, we learned how to create or insert, read, update and delete database records with our PHP and MySQL CRUD tutorial for beginners. This time, we will learn object-oriented programming with PHP & MySQL.

This post will include the following contents:

1.0 Overview
2.0 Program output

3.0 Database table structure
3.1 Create a database
3.2 Create products table
3.3 Insert products sample data
3.4 Create categories table
3.5 Insert categories sample data
3.6 Output

4.0 Create the layout files
4.1 Create header layout file
4.2 Create footer layout file
4.3 Create custom CSS file
4.4 Output

5.0 Creating record in PHP the OOP way
5.1 Create create_product.php file
5.2 Create «Read Products» button
5.3 Get a database connection
5.4 Create the database class
5.5 Create an HTML form
5.6 Show categories drop down
5.7 Create «categories» object
5.8 Add readName() method
5.9 Code when the form was submitted
5.10 Create «products» object
5.11 Output

6.0 Reading and paging record in PHP the OOP way
6.1 Create index.php file
6.2 Add «Create Product» button
6.3 Configure pagination variables
6.4 Retrieve records from the database
6.5 Add readAll() method
6.6 Display data from the database
6.7 Add action buttons
6.8 Create paging.php file
6.9 Add countAll() method
6.10 Include paging.php file
6.11 Output

7.0 Updating record in PHP the OOP way
7.1 Create update_product.php file
7.2 Create «Read Products» button
7.3 Read one record
7.4 Add readOne() method
7.5 Put form values
7.6 Show categories dropdown
7.7 Code when form was submitted
7.8 Add update() method
7.9 Output

8.0 Read One Record in PHP the OOP way
8.1 Create read_one.php file
8.2 Read one record
8.3 Display record on HTML table
8.4 Output

9.0 Deleting record in PHP the OOP way
9.1 Put this JavaScript code in layout_footer.php
9.2 Create delete_product.php
9.3 Add delete() method
9.4 Output

10.0 Search records in PHP the OOP way
10.1 Change index.php code
10.2 Create read_template.php file
10.3 Create core.php file
10.4 Change paging.php code
10.5 Include core.php and read_template.php
10.6 Create search.php file
10.7 Add search() and countAll_BySearch() methods
10.8 Output

11.0 File upload in PHP the OOP way
11.1 Change HTML form
11.2 Set value of «image» field
11.3 Change create() method
11.4 Call uploadPhoto() method
11.5 Add uploadPhoto() method
11.6 Validate submitted file
11.7 Return error messages
11.8 Show uploaded image file
11.9 Output

12.0 How To Run The Source Code?
13.0 Download LEVEL 1 Source Code
14.0 Download LEVEL 2 Source Code
15.0 Download LEVEL 3 Source Code
16.0 Download ALL LEVELS

17.0 What’s Next?
18.0 Related Tutorials
19.0 Notes

Before we start, we want to let you know that your feedback is important to us!

If you have a positive feedback about our work, please let us know. If there’s a section in this tutorial that is confusing or hard to understand, we consider it as a problem. Please let us know as well.

Write your positive feedback or detailed description of the problem in the comments section below. Before you write a comment, please read this guide and our code of conduct. Thank you!

1.0 Overview

Our tutorial for today is about creating a simple database application. We can achieve it with the help of this PHP OOP CRUD tutorial. You can use this knowledge in your current or future projects.

We use Bootstrap so that our application will have a decent UI. If you’re not yet familiar what Bootstrap is, and you want to learn how to use it in few steps, I highly recommend following our Bootstrap tutorial first.

There are so many PHP object oriented programming tutorials on the web today, they have different examples and implementations. Some might be completely correct, some maybe not.

I’m writing this tutorial with a clear goal: to give the best PHP OOP CRUD tutorial for beginners. I welcome your comments and suggestions to help me achieve this.

We want to learn the correct PHP OOP implementation. There are PHP frameworks such as CakePHP, CodeIgniter, and Laravel that correctly do it.

Those things are one step higher. For now, we will learn object oriented programming with PHP & MySQL. Working with a PHP framework should be easy after following this tutorial.

2.0 Program Output — PHP OOP CRUD Tutorial

We usually have three LEVELS of source code output. But WHY? Because I believe in «Learning Progression» to ensure efficient learning. Learn more

Please note that the following images are just output previews. New features might be added already the time you are reading this.

2.1 LEVEL 1 Source Code Output

#1 Read Rrecords

#2 Read One Record

#3 Create Record

#4 Update Record

#5 Delete Record

2.2 LEVEL 2 Source Code Output

#2 Records Pagination

#3 Search Records

#4 Read One Record

#5 Create Record

#6 Update Record

#7 Delete Record

#8 Delete Selected Records (Pop Up When No Records Were Selected)

2.3 LEVEL 3 Source Code Output

#1 Read Products

#2 Search Products

#3 Search Product By Date Range

#4 Sort Products By Price

#5 Read Products By Category

#6 Read One Product

#7 Create Product

#8 Update Product

#9 Delete Product

#10 Delete Selected Product (Pop Up When No Products Were Selected)

#11 Read Categories

#12 Search Categories

#13 Create Category

#14 Update Category

#15 Delete Category

The LEVEL 2 and LEVEL 3 source code outputs proves that you can add and customize more features. It’s easier and faster if you will learn by following our tutorial below.

Downloading our source codes is your huge advantage as well. For now, let’s proceed to the step by step tutorial of our LEVEL 1 source code. Enjoy!

3.0 Database Table Structure

The files products.sql and categories.sql are also included in the code download, located at the README folder.

3.1 Create a database

  • Open your PhpMyAdmin (http://localhost/phpmyadmin)
  • Create a new database.
  • Put php_oop_crud_level_1 as database name.
  • Click «Create» button.

3.2 Create products table

In this section, we will create the «products» table (using PhpMyAdmin) on the database we just created.

Here’s how to run an SQL statement using PhpMyAdmin.

  • Click php_oop_crud_level_1 database.
  • Click «SQL» tab.
  • Copy the SQL statement below and paste it in the text area.
  • Click the «Go» button.

3.3 Insert products sample data

We have to put some database records.

Run the following SQL statement using your PhpMyAdmin.

3.4 Create categories table

Categories table are used to store product categories.

Run the following SQL statement using your PhpMyAdmin.

3.5 Insert categories sample data

We are going to have «Fashion», «Electronics» and «Motors» as categories in our project. I got those three category ideas from eBay, haha!

Run the following SQL statement using your PhpMyAdmin.

3.6 Output

In this section, we were able to set up our database using PhpMyAdmin. It should look like the image below.

We don’t have a PHP program output yet. Let’s continue on the next section to achieve more output.

4.0 Create the Layout Files

To reduce some code mess, we will create the layout files with the codes and assets it needs.

4.1 Create header layout file

This layout_header.php file will be included at the beginning of the PHP files that will need it. This way, we won’t have to write the same header codes every time.

We use the Bootstrap framework to make our project look good. If you’re not yet familiar with you, please learn our Bootstrap tutorial here first.

Bootstrap CSS asset will be included inside the head tags.

  • Create php-oop-crud-level-1 folder and open it.
  • Create layout_header.php file.
  • Place the following code.

4.2 Create footer layout file

This layout_footer.php will be included at the end of each PHP files that needs it. This way, we won’t have to write the same footer codes every time.

The assets used in this file are:

  • jQuery — needed by Bootstrap JavaScript.
  • Bootstrap JavaScript — to make cool UI components work.
  • BootboxJS — to show good looking alert or confirm dialog boxes.

Let’s go on and create the footer layout file.

  • Open php-oop-crud-level-1 folder.
  • Create layout_footer.php file.
  • Place the following code.

4.3 Create custom CSS file

This file is used to change any style we want on our web page. It is also used to override the default style given by Bootstrap.

  • Open php-oop-crud-level-1 folder.
  • Create libs folder.
  • Create css folder.
  • Create custom.css file.
  • Place the following code.

4.4 Output

The layout files we created in this section is meant to be used inside another PHP file. If we try to run the layout files alone, we won’t get any meaningful output.

If you run layout_header.php, it will look like this on the browser.

The custom.css file will look like this.

The layout_footer.php is blank. Let’s continue on the next section to see a more meaningful output.

5.0 Creating record in PHP the OOP Way

5.1 Create a file: create_product.php

Go back to php-oop-crud-level-1 folder, create a file with a name create_product.php and put the following code inside it.

5.2 Create a «Read Products» Button

The following code will render a button. Replace the comments // contents will be here of the previous section with the following.

5.3 Get a Database Connection

We can use it for retrieving categories or saving new product record later. Put the following code before // set page headers comment of create_product.php file.

5.4 Create the Database Configuration Class

Getting a database connection will not work without this class. This class file will be included in most PHP files of our PHP OOP CRUD Tutorial.

Create a config folder and ins >database.php file. Open that file and put the following code.

5.5 Create a Form in create_product.php

The following code will render an HTML form. Open create_product.php file.

Replace comment with the following code.

5.6 Loop Through the Categories Records to show as Drop-down

The following code will retrieve categories and put it in a «select» drop-down.

Replace comment of the previous section with the following code.

5.7 Create the Object Class for Categories

Of course, the previous section won’t work without the category object >objects folder. Create category.php file. Place the following code.

5.8 Prepare readName() method

It will get the category name instead of showing just an >category.php , you will see this method used in the next few sections.

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5.9 Code when the Form was Submitted

The user will enter the values in the HTML form and when the create (submit) button was clicked, values will be sent via POST request, the code below will save it in the database.

Open create_product.php file. Replace comment with the following code.

5.10 Create the Object Class for Products

The previous section will not work without the product object. Open objects folder. Create product.php file. Open that file and put the following code.

5.11 Output

Form to create product.

Categories drop down in the form.

When you fill out the form and clicked the «Create» button.

Changes in the database.

6.0 Reading and Paging Record in PHP the OOP Way

In this part of our PHP OOP CRUD tutorial, we will list the records from the database.

6.1 Create File: index.php

Create a new file and name it index.php . This file will show the main page of our web app. Put the following code inside it.

6.2 Add a «Create Product» button

The following code will render a button. When this button was clicked, it will show us a page where we can create a record. Replace the // contents will be here comments in the previous section with the following code.

6.3 Configure Pagination Variables

Pagination is very important if you have thousands of data from the database. Put the following code before the set page header comment of index.php file.

6.4 Retrieve Records from the Database

Now we will retrieve data from the database. Replace // retrieve records here comment of index.php with the following code.

6.5 Add readAll() Method in product.php

Retrieving records in the previous section won’t work without this method. Put the following code inside our «product.php» file which is inside the «objects» folder.

6.6 Display data from the database

This time, we will show the list of records to the user. An HTML table will hold our data. Put the following code after the section 6.2 code.

6.7 Put the Read, Edit and Delete Action Buttons

The following code will render three buttons: Read, Edit and Delete button.

Inside the «while» loop of the previous section, there is a comment «read one, edit and delete button will be here», replace that with the following code.

6.8 Create paging.php for Paging Buttons

The following code will show our pagination buttons. Create a new file and name it «paging.php». Open that file and put the following code.

6.9 Add the countAll() method in objects/product.php

The following code will be used to count the total number of records in the database. This will be used for pagination.

Open your product.php file which is inside the «objects» folder. Add the following method in the class.

6.10 Include paging.php in index.php

The following code will show our pagination buttons under our records list. Put the following code after the closing «table» tag of section 6.6 above.

6.11 Output

Run http://localhost/php-oop-crud-level-1/index.php on your browser, you should see something like the image below.

List of records, page 1.

List of records, page 2.

7.0 Updating Record in PHP the OOP Way

I know our PHP OOP CRUD tutorial is kinda long. Please take a break or drink some coffee first!

7.1 Create File: update_product.php

Create update_product.php file, open that file and put the following code.

7.2 Create a «Read Products» Button

The following code will render a button. This button, when clicked, will let us go back to the records list. Replace the previous section’s «contents will be here» comments with the following code.

7.3 Retrieve One Product Information Based on the Given ID.

The following code will retrieve data that will populate our HTML form. This is important because this will let the user know what exactly the record he is updating.

Open update_product.php file. Replace «// retrieve one product will be here» comment with the following code.

7.4 Add readOne() method in the Product Object Class.

The readOne() method used in the previous section will not work without the following code inside /objects/product.php file.

7.5 Put the Values in the Form.

Now we can put the latest values to each form elements. Replace » » comment of update_product.php with the following code.

7.6 Loop Through the Categories Records to show as Drop-down

The following code will list the categories in a drop-down.

Notice that we put «if($product->category_ >

Replace the previouse section’s comments «categories select drop-down will be here» with the following code.

7.7 Code When Form was Submitted

The following code will assign the «posted» values to the object properties. Once assigned, it will update the database with those values using the update() method.

Open update_product.php file. Replace » comment with the following code.

7.8 Update Code in the Product Class

The following code will make the previous section’s «$product->update()» method work. Open our «product.php» which is inside the «objects» folder and add the following code.

7.9 Output

Click any «Edit» button in the index page. The update record form should look like the following.

When you submit the form, a message will be shown.

A record was changed in the database.

8.0 Read One Record in PHP the OOP Way

We previously made the code for «update record», this section for reading one record from a database will be easier to do.

8.1 Create read_one.php file

This is the page where the data of a single record will be displayed. Create a new file and name it «read_one.php», open that file and put the following code.

8.2 Read one record based on given record ID

The following code will read a single record from the database. Put the following code before the «set page headers» comments of the previous section.

8.3 Display record on HTML table

This time, we will display the record details on an HTML table. Put the following code under the closing «div» tag of «Read Products» button.

8.4 Output

Click any «Read» button in the index page, you should see something like the image below.

9.0 Deleting Record in PHP the OOP Way

This is the last coding part of our PHP OOP CRUD Tutorial. Enjoy every code!

9.1 Put this JavaScript code in layout_footer.php

Put the following JavaScript code before the closing «body» tag in layout_footer.php file. We used Bootbox.js to make a Bootstrap-style confirm dialog box.

9.2 Create delete_product.php

Create a new file and name it «delete_product.php». This file accepts the ID posted by the JavaScript code in the previous section. A record will be deleted from the database based on posted ID.

Open delete_product.php and put the following code.

9.3 Delete Code in Product Class

The previous section will not work with the «delete()» method in the product object. Open «product.php» which is inside the «objects» folder and put the following code.

9.4 Output

Click any «Delete» button in the index page. A pop up confirmation will be shown.

If the user clicks «OK» the record will be deleted and gone in the table.

A record was deleted in the database.

10.0 Search Records in PHP the OOP Way

We’ll continue by adding the search feature. This will answer the question: How to search data from database in php? This is a very useful feature because you enable your users to easily search a certain data from our MySQL database.

Please note that this is a bonus section. The code in this section is not included in our LEVEL 1 source code download.

10.1 Change index.php

We have to change index.php because we are adding a “search” feature and we want our code to be short. Our index.php will now look like the following code.

10.2 Create read_template.php

Why do we need this template? We need it because exactly the same code can be used by index.php and search.php for displaying a list of records. Using a template means lesser code.

This template holds our search form as well.

10.3 Create core.php in «config» folder

Create a new folder and name it «config». Inside that folder, create a new file and name it «core.php».

This file will hold our pagination variables. Using a core.php file is a good practice, it can be used to hold other configuration values that you might need in the future.

Open core.php and put the following code.

10.4 Change paging.php code

The new paging.php code will look like the following.

10.5 Include core.php and read_template.php

The core.php file will be included at the beginning of index.php file. The read_template.php will be included before the layout_footer.php inclusion. The new index.php will look like the following code

10.6 Create search.php

This is the most important file of this section. This file will display the records based on a user’s search term.

Create a new file and name it «search.php». Open that file and put the following code.

10.7 Add search() and countAll_BySearch() methods

Open «product.php» file which is inside the «objects» folder. Add the following methods in the class.

10.8 Output

11.0 File Upload in PHP the OOP Way

In this section, we will add a «file upload» feature. This feature is included in the LEVEL 2 source code download.

11.1 Change HTML form

Open create_product.php and find the «form» tag. Change that line to the following code. The «enctype» enables the form to submit a file to the server.

14.0 Download LEVEL 2 Source Code

FEATURES LEVEL 2
All features of LEVEL 1 above YES
HTML5 (font-end) validation for create product YES
HTML5 (font-end) validation for update product YES
Category selection for create and update product. YES
Buttons with Glyphicons YES
Search products by name or description YES
HTML5 (font-end) validation for search product YES
Pagination in search YES
Allow user to input page number (read and search list) YES
Export / download records to CSV YES
Price display with dollar sign, comma and decimal point YES
Multiple delete YES
File upload field when creating or updating record YES

15.0 Download LEVEL 3 Source Code

FEATURES LEVEL 3
All features of LEVEL 1 and 2 above YES
Bootstrap navigation bar YES
Select category in navigation YES
Higlight category in navigation YES
Create category YES
Read category YES
Update category YES
Delete category YES
View products by category YES
Pagination for category YES
Search category YES
Pagination for category search YES
Server side validation for create product & category YES
Server side validation for update product & category YES
Sorting by fields YES
Pagination for sorting by fields YES
jQuery UI enabled YES
Search product by date range — record date created YES
Pagination for earch product by date range YES
jQuery UI calendar for picking date YES

16.0 Download ALL LEVELS

This means you will download the LEVEL 1, 2 and 3 source codes in separate packages. Please select «ALL LEVELS Source Code» below and then you click the «Download Now» button.

Do you need more reasons to get it?

MORE REASONS TO DOWNLOAD THE CODE ALL
Use new skills for your multiple projects YES
Save huge amount of time learning Bootstrap and PHP YES
Code examples are direct to the point YES
Well explained and commented source code YES
Fast and friendly email support YES
Free source code updates YES

17.0 What’s Next?

I hope you learned a lot from our from our PHP OOP CRUD Tutorial! Learning PHP Object Oriented Programming is fun and it can dramatically improve your career.

Up next: You have two choices.

A. Learn our PHP Login Script with Session Tutorial – Step by Step Guide! — Let’s put our PHP OOP CRUD knowledge to work by building a simple PHP login script.

B. Learn How to create a simple REST API in PHP — Step by Step Guide! — this is required before we go to our JavaScript programming tutorials.

Overview

PHP QR Code is open source (LGPL) library for generating QR Code, 2-dimensional barcode. Based on libqrencode C library, provides API for creating QR Code barcode images (PNG, JPEG thanks to GD2). Implemented purely in PHP, with no external dependencies (except GD2 if needed).

Some of library features includes:

  • Supports QR Code versions (size) 1-40
  • Numeric, Alphanumeric, 8-bit and Kanji encoding. (Kanji encoding was not fully tested, if you are japan-encoding enabled you can contribute by verifing it 🙂 )
  • Implemented purely in PHP, no external dependencies except GD2
  • Exports to PNG, JPEG images, also exports as bit-table
  • TCPDF 2-D barcode API integration
  • Easy to configure
  • Data cache for calculation speed-up
  • Provided merge tool helps deploy library as a one big dependency-less file, simple to «include and do not wory»
  • Debug data dump, error logging, time benchmarking
  • API documentation
  • Detailed examples
  • 100% Open Source, LGPL Licensed

Usage

To install simply include:

  • qrlib.php for full version (also you have to provide all library files form package plus cache dir)
  • OR phpqrcode.php for merged version (only one file, but slower and less accurate code because disabled cache and quicker masking configured)

Then use it as follows:

QRcode::png('code data text', 'filename.png'); // creates file
QRcode::png('some othertext 1234'); // creates code image and outputs it directly into browser

Above examples show the most basic usage. For more features and customization see Detailed examples and PHP QR Code wiki or read INSTALL file in distrribution package.

Acknowledgements

Based on C libqrencode library (ver. 3.1.1), Copyright (C) 2006-2010 by Kentaro Fukuchi
http://megaui.net/fukuchi/works/qrencode/index.en.html

QR Code is registered trademarks of DENSO WAVE INCORPORATED in JAPAN and other countries.

Reed-Solomon code encoder is written by Phil Karn, KA9Q. Copyright (C) 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006 Phil Karn, KA9Q

Инструмент pix2code генерирует код пользовательского интерфейса на основе изображений

На GitHub появился инструмент pix2code, который автоматически преобразовывает дизайнерские макеты графических пользовательских интерфейсов (GUI) в готовый код, проще говоря — создает на основе изображения небольшую программу.

Разработчики из копенгагенской компании UIzard Technologies, придумавшие pix2code, ставят своей целью помочь ускорить процесс создания IT-проектов и упростить переход от идеи к реализации.

Демонстрация инструмента

Как работает pix2code?

Для преобразования изображений в программный код используются техники глубинного машинного обучения. Модель способна генерировать код на основе одного входного изображения с точностью более 77% и ориентирована на три платформы — iOS, Android и веб. На ускорителе Nvidia Tesla K80 оптимизация 109 × 10 6 параметров для одного набора данных (для одной платформы) занимает чуть меньше 5 часов.

Авторы сообщают, что наборы данных для тренировки и исходный код будут выложены в открытый доступ примерно в сентябре этого года.

Можно будет использовать его в своих проектах?

Нет, конкретно pix2code создан и будет существовать в качестве эксперимента и обучающей базы. Но ребята в UIzard Technologies советуют следить за их новостями — они готовятся выпускать на рынок похожий продукт.

Более подробную информацию можно получить на странице проекта и в репозитории на GitHub, а прочитать технический обзор — в посвященной инструменту исследовательской работе.

Advanced Usage

Table of contents

Specifying Valid File Extensions

By default, PHP_CodeSniffer will check any file it finds with a .inc , .php , .js or .css extension, although not all standards will actually check all these file types. Sometimes, this means that PHP_CodeSniffer is not checking enough of your files. Sometimes, the opposite is true. PHP_CodeSniffer allows you to specify a list of valid file extensions using the —extensions command line argument. Extensions are separated by commas.

To only check .php files:

To check .php, .inc and .lib files:

Ignoring Files and Folders

Sometimes you want PHP_CodeSniffer to run over a very large number of files, but you want some files and folders to be skipped. The —ignore command line argument can be used to tell PHP_CodeSniffer to skip files and folders that match one or more patterns.

In the following example, PHP_CodeSniffer will skip all files inside the package’s tests and data directories. This is useful if you are checking a PEAR package but don’t want your test or data files to conform to your coding standard.

The ignore patterns are treated as regular expressions. If you do specify a regular expression, be aware that * is converted to .* for the convenience in simple patterns, like those used in the example above. So use * anywhere you would normally use .* . Also ensure you escape any . characters that you want treated as a literal dot, such as when checking file extensions. So if you are checking for .inc in your ignore pattern, use \.inc instead.

You can also tell PHP_CodeSniffer to ignore a file using a special comment inserted at the top of the file. This will stop the file being checked even if it does not match the ignore pattern.

Note: Before PHP_CodeSniffer version 3.2.0, use // @codingStandardsIgnoreFile instead of // phpcs:ignoreFile . The @codingStandards syntax is deprecated and will be removed in PHP_CodeSniffer version 4.0.

Note: The phpcs:ignoreFile comment syntax does not allow for a specific set of sniffs to be ignored for a file. Use the phpcs:disable comment syntax if you want to disable a specific set of sniffs for the entire file.

If required, you can add a note explaining why the file is being ignored by using the — separator.

Note: The comment syntax note feature is only available from PHP_CodeSniffer version 3.2.0 onwards.

Ignoring Parts of a File

Some parts of your code may be unable to conform to your coding standard. For example, you might have to break your standard to integrate with an external library or web service. To stop PHP_CodeSniffer generating errors for this code, you can wrap it in special comments. PHP_CodeSniffer will then hide all errors and warnings that are generated for these lines of code.

Note: Before PHP_CodeSniffer version 3.2.0, use // @codingStandardsIgnoreStart instead of // phpcs:disable , and use // @codingStandardsIgnoreEnd instead of // phpcs:enable . The @codingStandards syntax is deprecated and will be removed in PHP_CodeSniffer version 4.0.

If you don’t want to disable all coding standard errors, you can selectively disable and re-enable specific error message codes, sniffs, categories of sniffs, or entire coding standards. The following example disables the specific Generic.Commenting.Todo.Found message and then re-enables all checks at the end.

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You can disable multiple error message codes, sniff, categories, or standards by using a comma separated list. You can also selectively re-enable just the ones you want. The following example disables the entire PEAR coding standard, and all the Squiz array sniffs, before selectively re-enabling a specific sniff. It then re-enables all checking rules at the end.

Note: All phpcs:disable and phpcs:enable comments only apply to the file they are contained within. After the file has finished processing all sniffs are re-enabled for future files.

Note: Selective disabling and re-enabling of codes/sniffs/categories/standards is only available from PHP_CodeSniffer version 3.2.0 onwards.

You can also ignore a single line using the phpcs:ignore comment. This comment will ignore the line that the comment is on, and the following line. It is typically used like this:

Note: Before PHP_CodeSniffer version 3.2.0, use // @codingStandardsIgnoreLine instead of // phpcs:ignore . The @codingStandards syntax is deprecated and will be removed in PHP_CodeSniffer version 4.0.

Again, you can selectively ignore one or more specific error message codes, sniffs, categories of sniffs, or entire standards.

Note: Selective ignoring of codes/sniffs/categories/standards is only available from PHP_CodeSniffer version 3.2.0 onwards.

If required, you can add a note explaining why sniffs are being disable and re-enabled by using the — separator.

Note: The comment syntax note feature is only available from PHP_CodeSniffer version 3.2.0 onwards.

Limiting Results to Specific Sniffs

By default, PHP_CodeSniffer will check your code using all sniffs in the specified standard. Sometimes you may want to find all occurrences of a single error to eliminate it more quickly, or to exclude sniffs to see if they are causing conflicts in your standard. PHP_CodeSniffer allows you to specify a list of sniffs to limit results to using the —sniffs command line argument, or a list of sniffs to exclude using the —exclude command line argument. Sniff codes are separated by commas.

Note: All sniffs specified on the command line must be used in the coding standard you are using to check your files.

The following example will only run two sniffs over the code instead of all sniffs in the PEAR standard:

The following example will run all sniffs in the PEAR standard except for the two specified:

Note: If you use both the —sniffs and —exclude command line arguments together, the —exclude list will be ignored.

Filtering Errors and Warnings Based on Severity

By default, PHP_CodeSniffer assigns a severity of 5 to all errors and warnings. Standards may change the severity of some messages so they are hidden by default or even so that they are raised to indicate greater importance. PHP_CodeSniffer allows you to decide what the minimum severity level must be to show a message in its report using the —severity command line argument.

To hide errors and warnings with a severity less than 3:

You can specify different values for errors and warnings using the —error-severity and —warning-severity command line arguments.

To show all errors, but only warnings with a severity of 8 or more:

Setting the severity of warnings to 0 is the same as using the -n command line argument. If you set the severity of errors to 0 PHP_CodeSniffer will not show any errors, which may be useful if you just want to show warnings.

This feature is particularly useful during manual code reviews. During normal development, or an automated build, you may want to only check code formatting issues. But while during a code review, you may wish to show less severe errors and warnings that may need manual peer review.

Replacing Tabs with Spaces

Most of the sniffs written for PHP_CodeSniffer do not support the usage of tabs for indentation and alignment. You can write your own sniffs that check for tabs instead of spaces, but you can also get PHP_CodeSniffer to convert your tabs into spaces before a file is checked. This allows you to use the existing space-based sniffs on your tab-based files.

In the following example, PHP_CodeSniffer will replace all tabs in the files being checked with between 1 and 4 spaces, depending on the column the tab indents to.

Note: The included sniff that enforces space indentation will still generate errors even if you have replaced tabs with spaces using the —tab-width setting. This sniff looks at the unmodified version of the code to check line indentation and so must be disabled in a custom ruleset.xml file if you want to use tab indentation.

Specifying an Encoding

By default, PHP_CodeSniffer will treat all source files as if they use UTF-8 encoding. If you need your source files to be processed using a specific encoding, you can specify the encoding using the —encoding command line argument.

Using a Bootstrap File

PHP_CodeSniffer can optionally include one or more custom bootstrap files before beginning the run. Bootstrap files are included after command line arguments and rulesets have been parsed, and right before files begin to process. These custom files may be used to perform such taks as manipulating the internal settings of PHP_CodeSniffer that are not exposed through command line arguments. Multiple bootstrap files are seperated by commas.

Using a Default Configuration File

If you run PHP_CodeSniffer without specifying a coding standard, PHP_CodeSniffer will look in the current directory, and all parent directories, for a file called either .phpcs.xml , phpcs.xml , .phpcs.xml.dist , or phpcs.xml.dist . If found, configuration information will be read from this file, including the files to check, the coding standard to use, and any command line arguments to apply.

Note: If multiple default configuration files are found, PHP_CodeSniffer will select one using the following order: .phpcs.xml , phpcs.xml , .phpcs.xml.dist , phpcs.xml.dist

The phpcs.xml file has exactly the same format as a normal ruleset.xml file, so all the same options are available in it. The phpcs.xml file essentially acts as a default coding standard and configuration file for a code base, and is typically used to allow the phpcs command to be run on a repository without specifying any arguments.

An example phpcs.xml file can be found in the PHP_CodeSniffer repository: phpcs.xml.dist

Specifying php.ini Settings

PHP_CodeSniffer allows you to set temporary php.ini settings during a run using the -d command line argument. The name of the php.ini setting must be specified on the command line, but the value is optional. If no value is set, the php.ini setting will be given a value of TRUE.

You can also specific multiple values:

Setting Configuration Options

PHP_CodeSniffer has some configuration options that can be set. Individual coding standards may also require configuration options to be set before functionality can be used. View a full list of configuration options.

To set a configuration option, use the —config-set command line argument.

Configuration options are written to a global configuration file. If you want to set them for a single run only, use the —runtime-set command line argument.

Note: Not all configuration options can be set using the —runtime-set command line argument. Configuration options that provide defaults for command line arguments, such as the default standard or report type, can not be used with —runtime-set . To set these values for a single run only, use the dedicated CLI arguments that PHP_CodeSniffer provides. The Configuration Options list provides an alternative CLI argument for each configuration option not supported by —runtime-set .

Deleting Configuration Options

PHP_CodeSniffer allows you to delete any configuration option, reverting it to its default value. View a full list of configuration options.

To delete a configuration option, use the —config-delete command line argument.

Viewing Configuration Options

To view the currently set configuration options, use the —config-show command line argument.

Printing Verbose Tokeniser Output

This feature is provided for debugging purposes only. Using this feature will dramatically increase screen output and script running time.

PHP_CodeSniffer contains multiple verbosity levels. Level 2 (indicated by the command line argument -vv ) will print all verbosity information for level 1 (file specific token and line counts with running times) as well as verbose tokeniser output.

The output of the PHP_CodeSniffer tokeniser shows the step-by-step creation of the scope map and the level map.

The scope map is best explained with an example. For the following file:

The scope map output is:

The scope map output above shows the following pieces of information about the file:

  • A scope token if was found at token 1 (note that token 0 is the open PHP tag).
  • The opener for the if statement, the open curly brace, was found at token 7.
  • The closer for the if statement, the close curly brace, was found at token 15.
  • Tokens 8 — 15 are all included in the scope set by the scope opener at token 7, the open curly brace. This indicates that these tokens are all within the if statement.

The scope map output is most useful when debugging PHP_CodeSniffer’s scope map, which is critically important to the successful checking of a file, but is also useful for checking the type of a particular token. For example, if you are unsure of the token type for an opening curly brace, the scope map output shows you that the type is T_OPEN_CURLY_BRACKET and not, for example, T_OPEN_CURLY_BRACE.

The level map is best explained with an example. For the following file:

The level map output is:

The level map output above shows the following pieces of information about the file:

  • A scope opener, an open curly brace, was found at token 7 and opened the scope for an if statement, defined at token 1.
  • Tokens 8 — 15 are all included in the scope set by the scope opener at token 7, the open curly brace. All these tokens are at level 1, indicating that they are enclosed in 1 scope condition, and all these tokens are enclosed in a single condition; an if statement.

The level map is most commonly used to determine indentation rules (e.g., a token 4 levels deep requires 16 spaces of indentation) or to determine if a particular token is within a particular scope (e.g., a function keyword is within a class scope, making it a method).

Printing Verbose Token Processing Output

This feature is provided for debugging purposes only. Using this feature will dramatically increase screen output and script running time.

PHP_CodeSniffer contains multiple verbosity levels. Level 3 (indicated by the command line argument -vvv ) will print all verbosity information for level 1 (file specific token and line counts with running times), level 2 (tokeniser output) as well as token processing output with sniff running times.

The token processing output is best explained with an example. For the following file:

The token processing output is:

Every token processed is shown, along with its ID, type and contents. For each token, all sniffs that were executed on the token are displayed, along with the running time.

For example, the output above shows us that token 1, an if keyword, had 5 sniffs executed on it; the ControlSignature sniff, the MultiLineCondition sniff, the ScopeClosingBrace sniff, the ScopeIndent sniff and the InlineControlStructure sniff. Each was executed fairly quickly, but the slowest was the ControlSignature sniff, taking 0.0001 seconds to process that token.

The other interesting piece of information we get from the output above is that some tokens didn’t have any sniffs executed on them. This is normal behaviour for PHP_CodeSniffer as most sniffs listen for specific or rarely used tokens and then execute on it and a number of tokens following it.

For example, the ScopeIndentSniff executes on the if statement’s token only, but actually checks the indentation of every line within the if statement. The sniff uses the scope map to find all tokens within the if statement.

If a coding standard or configuration file includes settings to print progress or verbose output while running PHP_CodeSniffer, it can make it difficult to use the standard with automated checking tools and build scripts as these typically only expect an error report. If you have this problem, or just want less output, you can quieten the output of PHP_CodeSniffer by using the -q command line argument. When using this quiet mode, PHP_CodeSniffer will only print report output, and only if errors or warnings are found. No progress or verbose output will be printed.

Анализ кода в Python

Анализ кода в Python может быть трудной темой, но очень полезной в тех случаях, когда вам нужно повысить производительность вашей программы. Существует несколько анализаторов кода для Python, которые вы можете использовать для проверки своего кода и выяснить, соответствует ли он стандартам. Самым популярным можно назвать pylint. Он очень удобен в настойках и подключениях. Он также проверяет ваш код на соответствие с PEP8, официальным руководством по стилю ядра Python, а также ищет программные ошибки. Обратите внимание на то, что pylint проверяет ваш код на большую часть стандартов PEP8, но не на все. Также мы уделим наше внимание тому, чтобы научиться работать с другим анализатором кода, а именно pyflakes.

Начнем с pylint

Пакет pylint не входит в Python, так что вам нужно будет посетить PyPI (Python Package Index), или непосредственно сайт пакета для загрузки. Вы можете использовать следующую команду, которая сделает всю работу за вас:

Если все идет по плану, то pylint установится, и мы сможем пойти дальше.

Анализ вашего кода

После установки pylint вы можете запустить его в командной строке, без каких либо аргументов, что бы увидеть, какие опции он принимает. Если это не сработало, можете прописать полный путь, вот так:

Теперь нам нужен какой-нибудь код для анализа. Вот часть кода, которая содержит четыре ошибки. Сохраните её в файле под названием crummy_code.py:

Можете увидеть ошибки не запуская код? Давайте посмотрим, может ли pylint найти их!

После запуска этой команды вы увидите большую выдачу на вашем экране. Вот частичный пример:

Давайте немного притормозим и разберемся. Сначала нам нужно понять, что означают буквы:

  • С – конвенция (convention)
  • R – рефакторинг (refactor)
  • W – предупреждение (warning)
  • E – ошибка (error)

Наш pylint нашел 3 ошибки, 4 проблемы с конвенцией, 2 строки, которые нуждаются в рефакторинге и одно предупреждение. Предупреждение и 3 ошибки – это как раз то, что я искал. Мы попытаемся исправить этот код и устранить ряд проблем. Для начала мы наведем порядок в импортах, и изменить функцию getWeight на get_weight, в связи с тем, что camelCase не используется в названиях методов. Нам также нужно исправить вызов get_weight, чтобы он передавал правильное количество аргументов и исправить его, чтобы “self” выступал в качестве первого аргумента. Взглянем на новый код:

Давайте запустим новый код с pylint и посмотрим, насколько успешно мы провели работу. Для краткости, мы еще раз рассмотрим первую часть:

Как мы видим, это очень помогло. Если мы добавим docstrings, мы можем снизить количество ошибок вдвое. Теперь мы готовы перейти к pyflakes!

Работаем с pyflakes

Проект pyflakes это часть чего-то, что называется Divmod Project. Pyflakes на самом деле не выполняет проверяемый код также, как и pylint. Вы можете установить pyflakes при помощи pip, easy_install, или из другого источника.

Данный сервис может предложить Вам персональные условия при заказе классов на посты и фото в Одноклассники. Приобретайте необходимый ресурс не только со скидками, но и с возможностью подобрать наилучшее качество и скорость поступления.

Мы начнем с запуска pyflakes в изначальной версии той же части кода, которую мы использовали для проверки pylint. Вот и он:

Как мы отмечали в предыдущем разделе, в этом поломанном коде четыре ошибки, три из которых препятствуют работе программы. Давайте посмотрим, что же pyflakes может найти. Попытайтесь запустить данную команду и на выходе вы должны получить следующее:

Несмотря на суперски быструю скорость возврата выдачи, pyflakes не нашел все ошибки. Вызов метода getWeight передает слишком много аргументов, также метод getWeight сам по себе определен некорректно, так как у него нет аргумента self. Что-же, вы, собственно, можете называть первый аргумент так, как вам угодно, но в конвенции он всегда называется self. Если вы исправили код, оперируя тем, что вам сказал pyflakes, код не заработает, несмотря на это.

Подведем итоги

Следующим шагом должна быть попытка запуска pylint и pyflakes в вашем собственном коде, либо же в пакете Python, вроде SQLAlchemy, после чего следует изучить полученные в выдаче данные. Вы можете многое узнать о своем коде, используя данные инструменты. pylint интегрирован с Wingware, Editra, и PyDev. Некоторые предупреждения pylint могут показаться вам раздражительными, или не особо уместными. Существует несколько способов избавиться от таких моментов, как предупреждения об устаревании, через опции командной строки. Вы также можете использовать -generate-rcfile для создания примера файла config, который поможет вам контролировать работу pylint. Обратите внимание на то, что pylint и pyflakes не импортируют ваш код, так что вам не нужно беспокоиться о нежелательных побочных эффектах.

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